, Characteristics in categories, such as education level, economic activity, region, place of work and others show proportions that sum up to 100%

. Note, Links to other businesses include producing for other firms, outsourcing to other firms, sharing equipment

, Source: ERF MSE data (Morocco, round 1 2002), using survey weights

, Essays in Generational, Labor and Development Economics -2019

. Note, The are the results to Equations (3.1) and (3.2)

. Note, Number 1 in ? 1 x stands for the first equation (the probit model), whereas number 2 stands for manufacturing, 3 for wholesale and retail trade, 4 for food and accommodation, 5 for business, social and other services, and 6 for construction, repair and others, p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05 and *** p < 0.01. Source: ERF MSE data

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, Mots clés: Générations imbriquées, héritage, transferts intra-ménages, inégalités, informalité, création des postes vacants, secteur privé, micro et petites entreprises, entrepreneuriat Essays in Generational, Labor and Development Economics, p.278, 2019.

P. Quatrièmement and . Interviennent, Premièrement, les demandeurs d'emploi Generational, Labor and Development Economics -2019

C. Rica, ;. Le-chili, . Au-népal, . Au-pakistan, . Au-cameroun et al., les MPE employant moins de 50 travailleurs représentent environ 95% des entreprises dans leurs pays respectifs. En Inde

, Le défi consiste toutefoisà distinguer ces différents types d'entreprises et, partant, le type de politique ou de programmeà mettre en place. Entre les "éléphants", qui sont généralement de grandes entreprises, et les "souris", qui peuvent difficilement survivre, la littérature a souvent recherché les "gazelles", c'est-à-dire celles qui peuventêtre petites mais qui ont un potentiel de croissance et peut se développer

, Ce chapitre décrit l'hétérogénéité des MPE au Maroc, en insistant plus particulièrement sur les contraintes des "gazelles potentielles". J'utilise le terme "gazelles potentielles" par oppositionà simplement "gazelles" afin de souligner leur potentiel

, tels que le fait d'être membre d'associations professionnelles, des grappes d'entreprises et d'établir des liens avec d'autres entreprises, et enfin; (6) l'accèsà des infrastructures telles que l'électricité, l'eau et les routes. Ces comparaisons donnent une image descriptive des différences entre les entreprises les plus performantes, les gazelles potentielles et les "autres

, Les résultats montrent que le groupe des plus performants a tendanceà se comporter favorablement sur presque tous les aspects, par rapport aux gazelles potentielles et aux "autres

, Ils ont des entrepreneurs pluséduqués et plusâgés (et ont probablement plus d'expérience)

, Une plus grande proportion d'entre eux fournissentà leurs travailleurs des contratsécrits, des congés payés et une formation, un plus grand nombre d'entre eux utilisent deséquipements modernes et un pourcentage plusélevé indique appartenirà des associations d'entreprises,à des grappes d'entreprises et entretenir des liens avec d'autres entreprises. Enfin, une proportion nettement plusélevée d'entre elles, Leurs entreprises sontégalement plus anciennes, engagent plus de travailleurs, versent des salaires plusélevésà leurs travailleurs, ont des revenus / ventes plusélevés, valeur ajoutée et capital (à la fois globalement et par travailleur)

, Les gazelles potentielles, qui représentent environ un cinquième des entreprises, bien que similaires en ce qui concerne un certain nombre de caractéristiques d'entrepreneurs et d'entreprises, semblent choisir leurs secteurs de manière différente et semblent limitées en termes d'accès au crédit (et du type de crédit)

, On peut en dire autant de la plupart des aspects liésà la gestion examinés, liés au réseau età l'infrastructure. Les entreprises informelles les plus performantes ne déclarent pas des parts significativement plusélevées de ces variables en général. Toutefois, il existe quelques exceptions intéressantes, telles que la tenue de registres, la constitution de grappes d'entreprises, l'établissement de liens avec d'autres entreprises et l'accèsà l'électricité, par exemple. Là encore, il apparaît que les aspects liés au réseau sont assez importants pour distinguer les entreprises les plus performantes, L'hétérogénéité s'estompeégalement lorsque l'on examine la proportion d'entreprises disposant de lignes de crédit et de facilités d'épargne actuelles, bien que les sources de crédit et d'épargne diffèrent entre les groupes informels

, Enfin, en utilisant les mêmes probabilités prédites, j'examine la proportion d'entreprises

, Premièrement, toutes les entreprises les plus performantes ne sont pas nécessairement formelles, mais le choix du secteur diffère entre les entreprises formelles et informelles. Deuxièmement, les gazelles potentielles, si elles sont correctement identifiées, peuvent bénéficier d'un meilleur accès au crédit, aux réseaux, aux infrastructures età la formationà la gestion, Ces résultats mettent enévidence certaines implications politiques clés

. Maroc, une part importante des PME pourrait bénéficier de programmes de protection sociale par opposition au développement des entreprises