D. Baumgardner, G. B. Raga, G. Kok, J. Ogren, I. Rosas et al., On the evolution of aerosol properties at a mountain site above Mexico City, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.33, issue.D17, pp.22-243, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00349-5

M. H. Bergin, G. R. Cass, J. Xu, C. Fang, L. M. Zeng et al., Aerosol radiative, physical, and chemical properties in Beijing during, J. Geophys. Res, vol.106, issue.17, pp.969-986, 1999.

O. Boucher and T. H. Anderson, General circulation model assessment of the sensitivity of direct climate forcing by anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to aerosol size and chemistry, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.33, issue.D12, pp.117-143, 1995.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2440:TBFITS>2.0.CO;2

J. Boutahar, S. Lacour, V. Mallet, D. Quelo, Y. Roustan et al., Development and validation of a fully modular platform for numerical modelling of air pollution: POLAIR, International Journal of Environment and Pollution, vol.22, issue.1/2, pp.17-28, 2004.
DOI : 10.1504/IJEP.2004.005474

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inria-00527198

H. E. Brindley and A. Ignatov, Retrieval of mineral aerosol optical depth and size information from Meteosat Second Generation SEVIRI solar reflectance bands, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.102, issue.3-4, pp.344-363, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rse.2006.02.024

P. Chazette and C. Liousse, A case study of optical and chemical ground apportionment for urban aerosols in Thessaloniki, Atmospheric Environment, vol.35, issue.14, pp.2497-2506, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00425-8

P. Chazette, H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, P. Couvert, and C. Flamant, Optical properties of urban aerosol from airborne and ground-based in situ measurements performed during the ESQUIF program, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00069643

M. Chin, R. Rood, S. Lin, J. F. Muller, and A. M. Thompson, Atmospheric sulfur cycle simulated in the global model GOCART: Model description and global properties, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.119, issue.D20, pp.671-695, 2000.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<0342:EOCPUA>2.0.CO;2

M. Chin, P. Ginoux, S. Kinne, O. Torres, B. N. Holben et al., Tropospheric aerosol optical thickness from the GOCART www.atmos-chem-phys, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.7115, issue.8, pp.7115-7132, 2008.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0461:taotft>2.0.co;2

URL : http://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/reference/bibliography/2002/mchin0201.pdf

M. Tombette, Simulation of aerosol optical properties model and comparisons with satellite and sun photometer measurements, J. Atmos. Sci, vol.59, pp.461-483, 2002.

C. E. Chung, V. Ramanathan, D. Kim, and I. A. Podgorny, Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived from satellite and ground-based observations, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.109, issue.D16, pp.10-1029, 2005.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JD006356

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2005JD006356/pdf

S. Chung and J. Seinfeld, Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.33, issue.D19, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(98)00362-8

E. Debry and B. Sportisse, Reduction of the condensation/evaporation dynamics for atmospheric aerosols: Theoretical and numerical investigation of hybrid methods, Journal of Aerosol Science, vol.37, issue.8, pp.950-966, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2005.09.004

E. Debry, K. Fahey, K. Sartelet, B. Sportisse, and M. Tombette, Technical Note: A new SIze REsolved Aerosol Model (SIREAM), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.6, pp.1537-1547, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-1537-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328020

J. L. Deuzé, F. M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman et al., Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.39, issue.33, pp.4913-4926, 2001.
DOI : 10.1109/36.763275

R. R. Dickerson, S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge et al., The Impact of Aerosols on Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Photochemical Smog, Science, vol.278, issue.5339, pp.827-830, 1997.
DOI : 10.1126/science.278.5339.827

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman et al., Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun and sky radiance measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.103, issue.103, pp.9791-9806, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/98JD01211

K. M. Fahey and S. N. Pandis, Optimizing model performance: variable size resolution in cloud chemistry modeling, Atmospheric Environment, vol.35, issue.26, pp.4471-4478, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00224-2

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts et al., Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing, in : Climate Change 2007: The physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, 2007.

H. Gerber, Relative-humidity parameterization of the Navy Aerosol Model, Natl. Res. Lab. Washington D.C, 1985.

P. Ginoux, L. W. Horrowitz, V. Ramaswamy, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben et al., Evaluation of aerosol distribution and optical depth in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled model CM2.1 for present climate, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.105, issue.23, pp.2221010-1029, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2005JD006707

E. Hamonou, P. Chazette, D. Balis, F. Dulac, X. Schneider et al., Characterization of the vertical structure of Saharan dust export to the Mediterranean basin, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.100, issue.suppl. 1, pp.22-257, 1999.
DOI : 10.1029/95JD02051

G. Hänel, The Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles as Functions of the Relative Humidity at Thermodynamic Equilibrium with the Surrounding Moist Air, Adv. Geophys, vol.19, pp.73-188, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/S0065-2687(08)60142-9

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The Software Package OPAC, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol.79, issue.5, pp.831-844, 1998.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0477(1998)079<0831:OPOAAC>2.0.CO;2

A. Hodzic, H. Chepfer, R. Vautard, P. Chazette, M. Beekmann et al., Comparison of aerosol chemistry transport model simulations with lidar and Sun photometer observations at a site near Paris, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.12, issue.D17, pp.2320110-1029, 2004.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.12.000564

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-00962923

A. Hodzic, R. Vautard, H. Chepfer, P. Goloub, L. Menut et al., Evolution of aerosol optical thickness over Europe during the August 2003 heat wave as seen from CHIMERE model simulations and POLDER data, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.6, issue.7, pp.1853-1864, 1853.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-6-1853-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ineris-00970029

A. Hodzic, S. Madronich, B. Bohn, S. Massie, L. Menut et al., Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: Meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss, vol.7, pp.4781-48554781, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328059

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. K. Eck, I. Slutsker et al., An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: Aerosol optical depth from AERONET, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.21, issue.3, pp.12-067, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1969.tb00468.x

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2001JD900014/pdf

J. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. Van-der-linden et al., The scientific basis, an evaluation of the IPCC, 2001.

D. Jacob, Heterogeneous chemistry and tropospheric ozone, Atmospheric Environment, vol.34, issue.12-14, pp.2131-2159, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00462-8

M. Z. Jacobson, A physically-based treatment of elemental carbon optics: Implications for global direct forcing of aerosols, Geophysical Research Letters, vol.28, issue.2, pp.217-220, 2000.
DOI : 10.1021/es00053a006

A. Jeuken, J. P. Veefkind, F. Dentener, S. Metzger, R. Gonzáles et al., Simulation of the aerosol optical depth over Europe for August 1997 and a comparison with observations, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.25, issue.No. 7, pp.295-323, 2001.
DOI : 10.1029/98GL02264

D. G. Kaskaoutis, H. D. Kambezidis, N. Hatzianastassiou, P. G. Kosmopoulos, and K. V. Badarinath, Aerosol climatology: on the discrimination of aerosol types over four AERONET sites, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol.7, issue.3, pp.6357-6411, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-7-6357-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00302763

K. A. Katrinak, P. Rez, P. R. Perkes, and P. R. Buseck, Fractal geometry of carbonaceous aggregates from an urban aerosol, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.27, issue.3, pp.539-547, 1993.
DOI : 10.1021/es00040a013

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu et al., Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.12, issue.D14, pp.51-68, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-6981(78)90196-8

S. Kinne, M. Schultz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski et al., An AeroCom initial assessment ??? optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.6, issue.7, pp.1815-1834, 1815.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-6-1815-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328437

G. Koh, Effective dielectric constant of a medium with spherical inclusions, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol.30, issue.1, pp.184-186, 1992.
DOI : 10.1109/36.124230

J. Léon, P. Chazette, J. Pelon, F. Dulac, R. et al., Aerosol direct radiative impact over the INDOEX area based on passive and active remote sensing, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.101, issue.17, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1029/96JD01011

G. Lesins, P. Chylek, and U. Lohmann, A study of internal and external mixing scenarios and its effect on aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.22, issue.6750, pp.10-1029, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2440:TBFITS>2.0.CO;2

U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.5, issue.3, pp.715-737, 2005.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-5-715-2005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00301508

J. Louis, A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.93, issue.2, pp.187-202, 1979.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00117978

M. Mallet, J. Roger, S. Despiau, O. Dubovik, and J. Putaud, Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE, Atmospheric Research, vol.69, issue.1-2, pp.73-97, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.07.001

V. Mallet and B. Sportisse, Uncertainty in a chemistry-transport model due to physical parametrizations and numerical approximations: An ensemble approach applied to ozone modeling, J. Geophys. Res, pp.10-1029, 2006.

V. Mallet, D. Quélo, B. Sportisse, M. Ahmed-de-biasi, ´. E. Debry et al., Technical Note: The air quality modeling system Polyphemus, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.75479, pp.5479-5487, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-5479-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328079

J. C. Maxwell-garnett, Colours in Metal Glasses and in Metallic Films, pp.385-420, 1904.

G. Mie, Beitr??ge zur Optik tr??ber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metall??sungen, Annalen der Physik, vol.24, issue.3, pp.377-445, 1908.
DOI : 10.1002/andp.18802470905

E. C. Monahan, D. E. Spiel, D. , and K. L. , A Model of Marine Aerosol Generation Via Whitecaps and Wave Disruption, pp.167-174, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-009-4668-2_16

C. Moulin, C. Lambert, F. Dulac, and U. Dayan, Control of atmospheric export of dust from North Africa by the North Atlantic Oscillation, Nature, vol.11, issue.6634, pp.691-694, 1997.
DOI : 10.1080/01431169008955048

A. Nenes, S. Pandis, and C. Pilinis, ISORROPIA: A new thermodynamic equilibrium model for multiphase multicomponent inorganic aerosols, Aquatic Geochemistry, vol.4, issue.1, pp.123-152, 1998.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1009604003981

J. E. Penner, S. Y. Chang, M. Chin, C. C. Chuang, J. Feichter et al., A Comparison of Model- and Satellite-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth and Reflectivity, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol.59, issue.3, pp.441-460, 2002.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<0441:ACOMAS>2.0.CO;2

C. Pilinis, K. Capaldo, A. Nenes, and S. Pandis, MADM-A New Multicomponent Aerosol Dynamics Model, Aerosol Science and Technology, vol.32, issue.5, pp.482-502, 2000.
DOI : 10.1080/027868200303597

URL : http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/027868200303597?needAccess=true

B. K. Pun and C. Seigneur, Investigative modeling of new pathways for secondary organic aerosol formation, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.7, issue.9, pp.2199-2216, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-7-2199-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00302393

J. Putaud, F. Raes, R. V. Dingenen, E. Brüggemann, M. C. Facchini et al., A European aerosol phenomenology???2: chemical characteristics of particulate matter at kerbside, urban, rural and background sites in Europe, Atmospheric Environment, vol.38, issue.16, pp.2579-2595, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.041

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, and G. Mégie, photolysis rate coefficient, Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, vol.93, issue.14, pp.118-127, 2004.
DOI : 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0333:SSAARF>2.0.CO;2

H. Randriamiarisoa, P. Chazette, P. Couvert, J. Sanak, and G. Mégie, Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.6, issue.5, pp.1389-1407, 1389.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-6-1389-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328430

J. Raut and P. Chazette, Retrieval of aerosol complex refractive index from a synergy between lidar, sunphotometer and in situ measurements during LISAIR experiment, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol.7, issue.1, pp.1017-1065, 2007.
DOI : 10.5194/acpd-7-1017-2007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328506

J. Raut and P. Chazette, Vertical profiles of urban aerosol complex refractive index in the frame of ESQUIF airborne measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss, vol.7, issue.10, pp.799-809, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328568

R. González, C. Schaap, M. De-leeuw, G. Builtjes, P. J. et al., Spatial variation of aerosol properties over Europe derived from satellite observations and comparison with model calculations, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.3521, pp.521-533, 2003.

K. N. Sartelet, E. Debry, K. M. Fahey, Y. Roustan, M. Tombette et al., Simulation of aerosols and gas-phase species over Europe with the Polyphemus system. Part I: model-to-data comparison for, Atmos. Environ, vol.29, pp.6116-6131, 2001.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00589251

M. Schaap, M. Van-loon, H. M. Ten-brink, F. J. Dentener, and P. J. Builtjes, Secondary inorganic aerosol simulations for Europe with special attention to nitrate, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.4, issue.3, pp.857-874, 2004.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-4-857-2004

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00295447

. Www, atmos-chem-phys.net, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.87115, issue.8, pp.7115-7132, 2008.

B. Schell, I. J. Ackermann, and H. Haas, Modeling the formation of secondary organic aerosol within a comprehensive air quality model system, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, vol.30, issue.D22, pp.275-303, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/1352-2310(95)00417-3

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric chemistry and physics, 1998.

M. H. Smith and N. M. Harrison, The sea spray generation function, Journal of Aerosol Science, vol.29, pp.189-190, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0021-8502(98)00280-8

B. Sportisse, E. Debry, K. Fahey, Y. Roustan, K. Sartelet et al., PAM project (Multiphase Air Pollution): description of the aerosol models SIREAM and MAM, 2006.

W. Stockwell, F. Kirchner, and M. Kuhn, A new Mechanism for regional chemistry modeling, J. Geophys. Res, vol.102, pp.25-847, 1997.
DOI : 10.1029/97jd00849

URL : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/97JD00849/pdf

R. Strader, C. Gurciullo, S. Pandis, N. Kumar, and F. Lurmann, Development of a gas-phase chemistry, secondary organic aerosol and aquesous-phase chemistry modules for PM modelling, 1998.

M. Tombette and B. Sportisse, Aerosol modeling at a regional scale: Model-to-data comparison and sensitivity analysis over Greater Paris, Atmospheric Environment, vol.41, issue.33, pp.6941-6950, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.037

I. B. Troen and L. Mahrt, A simple model of the atmospheric boundary layer; sensitivity to surface evaporation, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol.105, issue.1-2, pp.129-148, 1986.
DOI : 10.1098/rspa.1947.0057

P. Warneck, Chemistry of the natural atmosphere, 1988.

W. J. Wiscombe, Improved Mie scattering algorithms, Applied Optics, vol.19, issue.9, pp.1505-1509, 1980.
DOI : 10.1364/AO.19.001505

H. Yu, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer et al., A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys, vol.6613, issue.6, pp.613-666, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00328420