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Decadal simulation and comprehensive evaluation of CESM/CAM5.1 with advanced chemistry, aerosol microphysics, and aerosol-cloud interactions

Abstract : Earth system models have been used for climate predictions in recent years due to their capabilities to include biogeochemical cycles, human impacts, as well as coupled and interactive representations of Earth system components (e.g., atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice). In this work, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with advanced chemistry and aerosol treatments, referred to as CESM-NCSU, is applied for decadal (2001-2010) global climate predictions. A comprehensive evaluation is performed focusing on the atmospheric component-the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) by comparing simulation results with observations/reanalysis data and CESM ensemble simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The improved model can predict most meteorological and radiative variables relatively well with normalized mean biases (NMBs) of -14.1 to -9.7% and 0.7-10.8%, respectively, although temperature at 2 m (T2) is slightly underpredicted. Cloud variables such as cloud fraction (CF) and precipitating water vapor (PWV) are well predicted, with NMBs of -10.5 to 0.4%, whereas cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), cloud liquid water path (LWP), and cloud optical thickness (COT) are moderately-to-largely underpredicted, with NMBs of -82.2 to -31.2%, and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is overpredictd by 26.7%. These biases indicate the limitations and uncertainties associated with cloud microphysics (e.g., resolved clouds and subgrid-scale cumulus clouds). Chemical concentrations over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (e.g., SO42-, Cl-, OC, and PM2.5) are reasonably well predicted with NMBs of -12.8 to -1.18%. Concentrations of SO2, SO42-, and PM10 are also reasonably well predicted over Europe with NMBs of -20.8 to -5.2%, so are predictions of SO2 concentrations over the East Asia with an NMB of -18.2%, and the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) over the globe with an NMB of -3.5%. Most meteorological and radiative variables predicted by CESM-NCSU agree well overall with those predicted by CESM-CMIP5. The performance of LWP and AOD predicted by CESM-NCSU is better than that of CESM-CMIP5 in terms of model bias and correlation coefficients. Large biases for some chemical predictions can be attributed to uncertainties in the emissions of precursor gases (e.g., SO2, NH3, and NOx) and primary aerosols (black carbon and primary organic matter) as well as uncertainties in formulations of some model components (e.g., online dust and sea-salt emissions, secondary organic aerosol formation, and cloud microphysics). Comparisons of CESM simulation with baseline emissions and 20% of anthropogenic emissions from the baseline emissions indicate that anthropogenic gas and aerosol species can decrease downwelling shortwave radiation (FSDS) by 4.7 W m(-2) (or by 2.9%) and increase SWCF by 3.2 W m(-2) (or by 3.1%) in the global mean.
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Soumis le : vendredi 4 décembre 2015 - 16:34:47
Dernière modification le : jeudi 10 novembre 2022 - 04:34:34

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J. He, Y. Zhang, T. Glotfelty, R. Y. He, R. Bennartz, et al.. Decadal simulation and comprehensive evaluation of CESM/CAM5.1 with advanced chemistry, aerosol microphysics, and aerosol-cloud interactions. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 2015, 7 (1), pp.110-141. ⟨10.1002/2014ms000360⟩. ⟨hal-01238315⟩



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