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Sources, distribution and variability of hydrocarbons and metals in atmospheric deposition in an urban area (Paris, France)

Abstract : Total atmospheric deposition, i.e., both wet and dry deposition, was sampled during 11 months in the "Ile-de-France" region, France. Monthly fluxes of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) were studied at three representative sites (two urbanised and one semiurban). A combination of spatial and temporal variability of total fluxes and pollutant fingerprints allows a better understanding of atmospheric pollutant dynamics over this region. In the whole studied area, aggregated total atmospheric fluxes of AHs, PAHs and HMs range from 19 to 33 mg m -2 y -1 , 99 to 161 µg m -2 y -1 and 48 to 103 mg m -2 y -1 , respectively. The highest values are observed in Paris centre, reflecting the importance of the urban centre as a source of pollutants, with a decline in many atmospheric deposits when moving away from urban areas. The seasonal distribution of these pollutants suggests the impact of residential heating on urban atmospheric deposition of hydrocarbons and the increase of dust loads containing HMs during summer. The qualitative study performed on atmospheric deposition data highlights the main sources of pollutants. Aliphatic fingerprints suggest a marked contribution of biogenic inputs to aliphatic contamination in the whole Ile-de-France region and slight petroleum inputs in urban areas. Aromatic fingerprints, characterised by the great predominance of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, associated with some specific ratio values, suggest the mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic contaminations of atmospheric deposition in the whole "Ile-de-France" region. HM distribution shows the presence of anthropogenic sources of Al and Fe in this area and the stationary sources (incinerators and plants) as a significant source of Si, S and Sb in the urban atmosphere. Moreover, a pollutant mix phenomenon, occurring in such an urban atmosphere, shows a significant influence on atmospheric deposition at the semiurban site.
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Sam Azimi, Vincent Rocher, Mathieu Muller, Régis Moilleron, Daniel Thevenot. Sources, distribution and variability of hydrocarbons and metals in atmospheric deposition in an urban area (Paris, France). Science of the Total Environment, Elsevier, 2005, 337, pp.223 - 239. ⟨10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.06.020⟩. ⟨hal-01086757⟩



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