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Article Dans Une Revue Canadian Journal of Regional Science / Revue canadienne des sciences régionales Année : 2011

Multipolarisation des emplois et déplacements domicile-travail: une comparaison de trois aires urbaines françaises

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Résumé

Multipolarisation of Jobs and Home to Work Trips: A Comparison of Three French Urban Areas This paper presents the main results of a research project which aims at comparing the impact of different kind of multipolarisation on the distance between home-place and workplace. The first part of the paper presents a review of recent international literature. On the one hand, some research has underlined that the average commuting distance differs between sub-centres. Several explanations have been given: the location of the sub-centre, and especially its distance to the main roads, the size of the sub-centre and the nature of the jobs. On the other hand, some studies have shown that the opposition between monocentrism and polycentrism is not very useful and that the analysis should concentrate on the influence of the form taken by polycentrism. The second part of the paper presents the three French urban areas that have been compared in this work. First, we present the methodology that has been used for the identification of employment sub-centres. It has two steps: the first one identifies the municipalities with a great concentration of jobs, and the second step groups municipalities on the basis of home to work commutes. Second, we describe the three urban areas that have been compared: Lyon is largely monocentric, Marseille is duocentric and Lille is a quadricentric urban area. In the third part of the paper, the relationships between urban form and home-to-work trips are analysed in terms of geographical distribution and average distance of home to work trips both in 1999 and in 1990. Two distances have been calculated (minimal and maximal) in order to verify that the results did not depend on the calculation of the distance. Results show that in each of the three urban areas a part of the commutes is short and another part is long. The average distance depends on the relative importance of each type of flow, which is related to the form taken by multipolarisation. The conclusion draws some policy recommendations that must be adapted to the form taken by multipolarisation.
Ce papier présente les principaux résultats d'une recherche visant à comparer l'impact de formes urbaines multipolaires spécifiques sur la distance domicile-travail. Trois aires urbaines françaises ont été comparées : celle de Lyon, qui présente une configuration des localisations encore largement monocentrique, celle de Marseille, qui est principalement duocentrique, et enfin l'aire urbaine de Lille qui est formée de quatre centralités de taille relativement équivalente. Les relations entre la forme urbaine et les caractéristiques des migrations domicile-travail sont appréhendées à travers l'analyse de la géographie des navettes et la distance associée à ces navettes. La conclusion propose des pistes pour les politiques d'aménagement et de transport.
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Dates et versions

hal-00696414 , version 1 (29-05-2012)

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  • HAL Id : hal-00696414 , version 1

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Anne Aguilera, Dominique Mignot. Multipolarisation des emplois et déplacements domicile-travail: une comparaison de trois aires urbaines françaises. Canadian Journal of Regional Science / Revue canadienne des sciences régionales, 2011, vol 33 (1), pp.83-100. ⟨hal-00696414⟩
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