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Theses

Exploring generative adversarial networks for controllable musical audio synthesis

Abstract : Audio synthesizers are electronic musical instruments that generate artificial sounds under some parametric control. While synthesizers have evolved since they were popularized in the 70s, two fundamental challenges are still unresolved: 1) the development of synthesis systems responding to semantically intuitive parameters; 2) the design of "universal," source-agnostic synthesis techniques. This thesis researches the use of Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) towards building such systems. The main goal is to research and develop novel tools for music production that afford intuitive and expressive means of sound manipulation, e.g., by controlling parameters that respond to perceptual properties of the sound and other high-level features. Our first work studies the performance of GANs when trained on various common audio signal representations (e.g., waveform, time-frequency representations). These experiments compare different forms of audio data in the context of tonal sound synthesis. Results show that the Magnitude and Instantaneous Frequency of the phase and the complex-valued Short-Time Fourier Transform achieve the best results. Building on this, our following work presents DrumGAN, a controllable adversarial audio synthesizer of percussive sounds. By conditioning the model on perceptual features describing high-level timbre properties, we demonstrate that intuitive control can be gained over the generation process. This work results in the development of a VST plugin generating full-resolution audio and compatible with any Digital Audio Workstation (DAW). We show extensive musical material produced by professional artists from Sony ATV using DrumGAN. The scarcity of annotations in musical audio datasets challenges the application of supervised methods to conditional generation settings. Our third contribution employs a knowledge distillation approach to extract such annotations from a pre-trained audio tagging system. DarkGAN is an adversarial synthesizer of tonal sounds that employs the output probabilities of such a system (so-called “soft labels”) as conditional information. Results show that DarkGAN can respond moderately to many intuitive attributes, even with out-of-distribution input conditioning. Applications of GANs to audio synthesis typically learn from fixed-size two-dimensional spectrogram data analogously to the "image data" in computer vision; thus, they cannot generate sounds with variable duration. In our fourth paper, we address this limitation by exploiting a self-supervised method for learning discrete features from sequential data. Such features are used as conditional input to provide step-wise time-dependent information to the model. Global consistency is ensured by fixing the input noise z (characteristic in adversarial settings). Results show that, while models trained on a fixed-size scheme obtain better audio quality and diversity, ours can competently generate audio of any duration. One interesting direction for research is the generation of audio conditioned on preexisting musical material, e.g., the generation of some drum pattern given the recording of a bass line. Our fifth paper explores a simple pretext task tailored at learning such types of complex musical relationships. Concretely, we study whether a GAN generator, conditioned on highly compressed MP3 musical audio signals, can generate outputs resembling the original uncompressed audio. Results show that the GAN can improve the quality of the audio signals over the MP3 versions for very high compression rates (16 and 32 kbit/s). As a direct consequence of applying artificial intelligence techniques in musical contexts, we ask how AI-based technology can foster innovation in musical practice. Therefore, we conclude this thesis by providing a broad perspective on the development of AI tools for music production, informed by theoretical considerations and reports from real-world AI tool usage by professional artists.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03640610
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 13, 2022 - 4:56:09 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 14, 2022 - 3:06:48 AM

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Javier Nistal Hurlé. Exploring generative adversarial networks for controllable musical audio synthesis. Sound [cs.SD]. Institut Polytechnique de Paris, 2022. English. ⟨NNT : 2022IPPAT009⟩. ⟨tel-03640610⟩

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